Psychology Topic Question

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​ Attachment

25 practice questions on attachment

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1. Anya has a 10-month-old son called Ben. Anya sometimes ignores Ben and does not respond when he cries. However, when Anya feels like playing with Ben, she wakes him up, even if he is soundly asleep.
(a) What type of attachment is Ben likely to show? Explain your answer.

(b) Explain how a psychologist could investigate Ben’s attachment type using Ainsworth’s Strange Situation.

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2. Mary Ainsworth studied insecure and secure attachments in infants by using the ‘Strange Situation’.
Describe how Ainsworth studied types of attachment.

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3. Outline and evaluate learning theory as an explanation of attachment.

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4. Outline and evaluate Bowlby’s explanation of attachment.

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5. Ainsworth identified different types of attachment in children, including secure and insecure
attachment.
Identify two characteristics of an insecurely attached child.
Characteristic One __________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
Characteristic Two __________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________

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6. Describe and evaluate Ainsworth’s work on attachment. As part of your evaluation, you should refer to the work of at least one other researcher.

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7. How does the behaviour of securely attached infants differ from that of insecurely attached infants?

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8. Psychologists have put forward different explanations of attachment, such as learning theory and Bowlby’s theory.
Outline and evaluate one or more explanations of attachment.

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9. One situation in which disruption of attachment can occur is when a mother of a young child is admitted into hospital. A researcher decided to study the behaviour of a two year old boy who experienced this disruption of attachment. She decided to use naturalistic observation of the boy both before his mother was admitted into hospital and after she returned home. Each period of observation lasted for one hour.
(a) Suggest two suitable behavioural categories the researcher could use to record the boy’s behaviour.
(b) How might the researcher record the boy’s behavi
(c) Explain why the psychologist might want to carry out a pilot study before the main observation.

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10. Ainsworth and Bell observed infants in an unfamiliar room to assess the quality of their attachment to their mother. Observations during this ‘Strange Situation’ related to the following categories of behaviour:
Exploration – how much the infant explored the unfamiliar room; Separation behaviour – how the infant reacted when the mother left; Stranger anxiety – the response of the infant to a stranger; Reunion behaviour – how the infant reacted when the mother returned.
(a) Select two of these categories and explain how the behaviour of securely attached infants and insecurely attached infants would be different in the ‘Strange Situation’.
(b) Briefly explain why some children show characteristics of secure attachment and some characteristics of insecure attachment.

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11. By observing interactions between the infants and their mothers in a Strange Situation, Mary Ainsworth was able to identify different types of attachment.
Describe possible demand characteristics in this research.

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Aggression,Issue and Debates

25 practice questions on Aggression , Issue and Debates

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1. Which two of the following statements describe a strongly deterministic view? Write the letters of your chosen answers in your answer booklet.

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2. Name two types of determinism.

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3. Briefly outline one problem associated with alpha bias in psychological research, and one problem associated with beta bias in psychological research.

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4. Briefly outline what psychologists mean by ‘levels of explanation’.

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5. Read the item and then answer the question that follows.
A prison psychologist used an idiographic approach to study offending. He asked two offenders to record their thoughts about their childhood and their offending behaviour in a journal over a period of four weeks. Qualitative analysis of the journals showed that the offenders often thought about sad childhood events and believed that their childhood experiences had influenced their offending. Findings from idiographic research like the study described above are often used as a basis for other investigations.
Explain how the researcher might develop the above investigation through taking a nomothetic approach.

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6. Which of the following statements best describes a nomothetic approach in psychology? Shade one box only.
Psychologists taking a nomothetic approach…

 

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7. Outline and evaluate reductionist explanations in psychology

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8. With reference to a behaviour, explain the distinction between hard determinism and soft determinism.

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9. ‘Nature and nurture interact; both are vital to understanding and explaining human behaviour.’
Referring to this statement, discuss the nature-nurture debate in psychology.

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10. Joel has learned to get his own way at school by having fights with other children. His two older brothers were both excluded from school for injuring other children. Recently, Joel has also been excluded from school for attacking another child. Explain what is meant by determinism. Refer to Joel’s aggressive behavior in your answer

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11. The best way to understand and explain behaviour is to reduce it to the simplest component parts.’ In the context of the holism-reductionism debate, discuss this view. Refer to at least one topic in your answer.

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12. Describe two ethical issues that can be illustrated by Milgram’s research into obedience to authority

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13. Explain why it is sometimes necessary to deceive participants in social influence research

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14. Describe one way in which deception has been dealt with in social influence research

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15. Which psychological perspective is most likely to focus on genetic and neurological factors in explaining aggression?

 

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16. In the nature-nurture debate regarding aggression, “nature” refers to:

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17. A psychologist studying aggression from a socio-cultural perspective is most likely to emphasize:

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18. The social learning theory of aggression, proposed by Bandura, highlights the role of:

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19. Which ethical issue is most relevant to research on aggression?

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20. In the context of the “nature vs. nurture” debate on aggression, which perspective argues that both genetic factors and environmental influences interact to shape behavior?

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21. The “Bobo doll” experiment conducted by Albert Bandura is an example of research that falls under which ethical issue?

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22. Which of the following psychological perspectives may be most critical of the concept of “innate aggression” as overly simplistic?

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23. When discussing gender and aggression, research suggests that males tend to display more ______ aggression, while females tend to display more ______ aggression.

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24. The issue of cultural relativism in the study of aggression underscores the importance of considering:

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25. In the context of ethical considerations in aggression research, which principle ensures that participants are fully aware of the study’s purpose, procedures, and potential risks before agreeing to participate?

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Addiction

25 practice questions on Addiction

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1.  Which neurotransmitter is often associated with the rewarding effects of addictive substances?

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2. The “withdrawal syndrome” refers to:

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3. The concept of “harm reduction” in addiction treatment focuses on:

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4. Substance addiction is often characterized by:

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5. Which of the following is a primary symptom of withdrawal in opioid addiction?

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6. Which neurotransmitter plays a crucial role in the regulation of stress and anxiety and is targeted by benzodiazepines and barbiturates?

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7. The concept of “tolerance” in addiction refers to:

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8. Which stage of addiction recovery involves maintaining abstinence and preventing relapse?

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9. The “biopsychosocial model” of addiction emphasizes:

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10. The “Disease Model” of addiction suggests that:

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11. Which neurotransmitter is associated with the regulation of mood and stress and is often targeted by substances like opioids and alcohol?

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12. The “gateway drug theory” suggests that:

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13. The “rat park” experiment conducted by Bruce Alexander suggested that:

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14. Which brain region is known to play a significant role in decision-making, impulse control, and is often implicated in addiction?

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15. Which of the following is NOT a behavioral addiction?

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16. The “brain disease” perspective of addiction argues that:

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17. The psychological model that suggests addiction is driven by negative reinforcement is:

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18. Which of the following approaches to addiction treatment involves providing small, controlled doses of a substance to reduce withdrawal symptoms and cravings?

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19. Which brain region is heavily involved in the formation of addictive behaviors and cravings?

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20. Which of the following is NOT considered a commonly abused substance?

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21. Which stage of the addiction process involves the initial exposure to a substance or behavior

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22. Question: A person who experiences tolerance and withdrawal symptoms is likely dealing with:

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23. Which theory suggests that addiction is a learned behavior through classical and operant conditioning?

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24. Which of the following best defines addiction?