Law YLA1 Edexcel Topic Questions

1.1 The nature, purpose of and liability in law

1.1.1 Certainty

1.1.2 Enforcement

1.1.3 Sanctioned by the state

1.1.4 Rights, duties, privileges, liabilities and legal personality

1.1.5 Liability and remedies in civil law

1.1.6 Liability and sanctions in criminal law

1.1.7 Positivism

1.1.8 Natural law

1.1.9 Utilitarianism

2.1 The market

2.1.1 Formation of contract: • offer • acceptance • consideration • legal intention • capacity

2.1.2 Terms in a contract: • express • implied • condition • warranty

2.1.3 Validity of contracts: • misrepresentation (Misrepresentation Act 1967) • mistake

2.1.4 Privity of contract: • the privity rule (including the Contracts/Rights of Third Parties Act 1999)

2.1.5 Negligence: • duty of care • breach of the duty of care • damage resulting from breach of duty of care • damages as a remedy

2.1.6 Defences: • volenti non fit injuria • contributory negligence • ex turpi causa • exclusion of liability

2.1.7 Remedies for the market: • damages • injunctions

2.3 The individual

2.3.1 Defamation Act 1996 and Defamation Act 2013 (sections 1, 2, 3 and 4): • libel • slander • defences and remedies

2.3.2 Protection under the Human Rights Act 1998 with respect to freedom of speech and assembly: • Article 10 The right to freedom of expression • Article 11 The right to freedom of assembly

2.3.3 Appeals to the European Court of Human Rights: • Article 267 of the Treaty on the functioning of the European Union

2.3.4 Effect on the government of successful appeals to the European Court of Human Rights

2.3.5 Legal actions to protect privacy and confidentiality: • The Data Protection Act 2018 (sections 2, 3, 4, 43 and section 170) • Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights 1953; The Human Rights Act 1998, the right to respect for private and family life, home and for correspondence

2.3.6 Freedom of information: (Freedom of Information Act 2000): • access to official, government and personal records

2.3.7 Occupiers’ Liability Act 1957

2.3.8 Occupiers’ Liability Act 1984

2.3.9 Trespass to land

2.3.10 Remedies for the individual

1.2 The sources of English law, its enforcement and administration

1.2.1 Creation of an Act of Parliament: • Parliament Acts 1911 and 1949 • Royal Assent Act 1967

1.2.2 The influences on law reform in developing English law: • political parties • pressure groups • law reform agencies • judges • media

1.2.3 Judicial interpretation of statutes: • Interpretation Act 1978

1.2.4 Types of delegated legislation

1.2.5 Control of delegated legislation: • judicial • parliamentary • Legislative and Regulatory Reform Act 2006

1.2.6 The doctrine of precedent in the court hierarchy

1.2.7 The role of equity in developing remedies in contract law

1.2.8 Directives

1.2.9 Regulations

1.2.10 The courts: • The Civil Procedure Rules

1.2.11 Arbitration

1.2.12 Conciliation

1.2.13 Mediation

1.2.14 Negotiation

1.2.15 Ombudsman

2.2 The criminal offender

2.2.1 actus reus: • causation • liability for omissions

2.2.2 mens rea: • intention • recklessness

2.2.3 Strict liability

2.2.4 The Theft Act 1968: • sections 1-6 Theft • section 7 Robbery • section 9 Burglary • section 21 Blackmail

2.2.5 The Fraud Act 2006: • section 2 Fraud by false representation • section 11 Obtaining services dishonestly

2.2.6 The Theft Act 1968: • section 3 Making off without payment

2.2.7 The Criminal Damage Act 1971: • section 1 Criminal damage • section 5 Without lawful excuse

2.2.8 Duress

2.2.9 Intoxication

2.2.10 Criminal Justice Act 2003: • community • financial • discharge